Peer Reviewed Publications


Heuer, R.M., Wang, Y., Pasparakis, C., Zhang, W., Scholey, V., Margulies, D., Grosell, M. 2023. Effects of elevated CO2 on metabolic rate and nitrogenous waste handling in the early life stages of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A. 280 (2023) 111398. doi:


Bonatesta, F., Emadi, C., Price, E.R., Wang, Y., Greeg, J.B., Xu, E.G., Schlenk, D., Grosell, M., Mager, E.M. 2022. The developing zebrafish kidney is impaired by Deepwater Horizon crude oil early - life stage exposure: A molecular to whole-organism perspective. Science of the Total Environment. 808: 151988. doi: 

Leads, R.R., Magnuson, J.T., Lucero, J., Lund, A.K., Schlenk, D., Chavez, J.R., Roberts, A.P. 2022. Transcriptomic responses and apoptosis in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) co-exposed to crude oil and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 179(2002) 113684. doi:

Pasparakis, C., Wang, Y., Heuer, R.M., Zhang, W., Stieglitz, J.D., McGuigan, C.J., Benetti, D.D., Scholey, V.P., Margulies, D., Grosell, M. 2022. Ultraviolet avoidance by embryonic buoyancy control in three species of marine fish. Science of the Total Environment. 806 (Part 3): 150542. doi:

Price, E.R., Bonatesta, F., McGruer, V., Schlenk, D., Roberts, A.P., Mager, E.M. (2022). Exposure of zebrafish larvae to water accommodated fractions of weathered crude oil alters steroid hormone concentrations with minimal effect on cholesterol. Aquatic Toxicology. 242: 106045. doi:


Faillettaz, R., Vaz, A.C., Perlin, N., Aman, Z.M., Schlüter, M., Murawski, S., Paris, C.B. (2021). The choice of droplet size probability distribution function for oil spill modeling is not trivial. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 163: 111920. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111920.

Heuer, R.M., Stieglitz, J.D., Pasparakis, C., Enochs, I.C., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M. 2021. The Effects of Temperature Acclimation on Swimming Performance in the Pelagic Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Frontiers in Marine Science. 8:654276. doi:

McGruer, V., Tanabe, P., Vliet, S.M.F., Dasgupta, S., Qian, L., Volz, D.C., Schlenk, D. 2021. Effects of phenanthrene exposure on cholesterol homeostasis and cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 00(00):1–10. doi:

Murawski, S., Grosell, M., Smith, C., Sutton, T., Halanych, K.M., Shaw, R.F. & Wilson, C.A. 2021. Impacts of petroleum, petroleum components, and dispersants on organisms and populations. Oceanography, 34(1), 136-151. doi:

Schlenker, L.S., Faillettaz, R., Stieglitz, J.D., Lam, C.H., Hoenig, R.H., Cox, G.K., Heuer, R.H., Pasparakis, C., Benetti, D.D., Paris, C.B., Grosell, M. 2021. Remote Predictions of Mahi - Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Spawning in the Open Ocean Using Summarized Accelerometry Data. Frontiers in Marine Science. 8, 626082. doi:

Takeshita, R., Bursian, S.J., Colegrove, K.M., Collier, T.K., Deak, K., Dean, K.M., De Guise, S., DiPinto, L.M., Elferink, C.J., Esbaugh, A.J., Griffitt, R.J., Grosell, M., Harr, K.E., Incardona, J.P., Kwok, R.K., Lipton, J., Mitchelmore, C.L., Morris, J.M., Peters, E.S., Roberts, A.P., Rowles, T.K., Rusiecki, J.A., Schwacke, L.H., Smith, C.R., Wetzel, D.L., Ziccardi, M.H., & Hall, A.J. 2021. A Review of the Toxicology of Oil In Vertebrates: What We Have Learned Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B. doi:

Wang, Y., Pasparakis, C., & Groesll, M. 2021. Role of the cardiovascular system in ammonia excretion in early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative, Comparative Physiology. 321: R377 - R384. doi:  


Kirby, A.R., Galli, G., Crossley, J., Sweet, L.E., Crossley II, D.A., & Roberts, A.P. (2020). Gill filament permeabilization: A novel approach to assess mitochondrial function in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) following anthraquinone exposure. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 230, 108699. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.108699.

Magnuson, J.T., Khursigara, A.J., Allmon, E.B., Esbaugh, A.J., Roberts, A.P. (2020). Effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on ocular development in two estuarine fish species, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 166, 186-191. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.087. 

Rowsey, L.E., Johansen, J.L., Khursigara, A.J., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2020). Oil exposure impairs predator – prey dynamics in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Marine and Freshwater Research, 71, 99-106. doi: 10.1071/MF18263.


Armstrong, T., Khursigara, A.J., Killen, S.S., Fearnley, H., Parsons, K.J., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2019). Oil exposure alters social group cohesion in fish. Scientific Reports, 9, 13520. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49994-1.

Bautista, N.M., & Burggren, W.W. (2019). Parental stressor exposure simultaneously conveys both adaptive and maladaptive larval phenotypes through epigenetic inheritance in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Journal of Experimental Biology, 222(17): jeb208918. doi: 10.1242/jeb.208918.

Bautista, N. M., Pothini, T., Meng, K., & Burggren, W. W. (2019). Behavioral consequences of dietary exposure to crude oil extracts in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Aquatic Toxicology207, 34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.11.025.

Beresford, S., Kastler, J., McDonald, R., DiNicola, D., & Fillingham, K. (2019). Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impacts on Organisms and Habitats. Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 33(1), 21-32. doi: 10.5334/cjme.22.

Bracken, L., DiNicola, D., Kastler, J., & Beresford, S. (2019). Technological Advances in Ocean Sciences Resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Event. Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 33(1), 33-41. doi: 10.5334/cjme.23.

Greer, J.B., Andrzejczyk, N.E., Mager, E.M., Stieglitz, J.., Benetti, D., Grosell, M., Schlenk, D. (2019). Whole – Transcriptome Sequencing of Epidermal Mucus as a Novel Method for Oil Exposure Assessment in Juvenile Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Environmental Science and Technology Letters, 6, 538 – 544. doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00479.

Greer, J.B., Pasparakis, C., Stieglitz, J.D.,  Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M., Schlenk, D. (2019). Effects of corexit 9500A and Corexit-crude oil mixtures on transcriptomic pathways and development toxicity in early life stage mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Aquatiuc Toxicology, 212, 233-240. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.05.014

Ho, D.H., & Burggren, W.W. (2019). Blood – brain barrier function, cell viability, and gene expression of tight junction – associated proteins in te mouse are disrupted by crude oil, benzo[a]pyrene, and the dispersant COREXIT. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 223, 96-105. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.05.011.

Johansen, J.L., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2019). Oil – induced responses of cardiac and red muscle mitochondria in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 219, 35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.02.003.

Heuer, R.M., Galli, G.L.J., Shiels, H.A., Fieber, L.A., Cox, G.K., Mager, E.M., Stielgitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M., Crossley II, D.A. (2019). Impacts of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil on Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) Heart Cell Function. Environmental Science and Technology, 53, 9895 – 9904. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b03798.

Khursigara, A.J., Ackerly, K.L., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2019). Oil toxicity and implications for environmental tolerance in fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 220, 52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.03.003.

Kirby, A.R., Cox, G.K., Nelson, D., Heuer, R.H., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M., Crossley II, D.A. (2019). Acute crude oil exposure alters mitochondrial function and ADP affinity in cardiac muscle fibers of young adult Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology , 218, 85-95. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.01.004

McGruer, V., Pasparakis, C., Grosell, M., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Greer, J.G., Schlenk, D. (2019). Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure alters cholesterol biosynthesis with implications for developmental cardiotoxicity in larval mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology,  220, 31-35. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.03.001

Pasparakis, C., Esbaugh, A.J., Burggren, W.W., Grosel, M. (2019). Impacts of deepwater horizon oil on fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 224, 108558. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.06.002

Pasparakis, C., Wang, Y., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., & Grosell, M. (2019). Embryonic buoyancy control as a mechanism of ultraviolet radiation avoidance. Science of The Total Environment, 651, 3070-3078. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.093

Perrichon, P., Stieglitz, J.D., Xu, E.G., Magnuson, J.T., Pasparakis, C., Mager, E.M., Wang, Y., Schlenk, D., Benetti, D.D., Roberts, A.P., Grosell, M., Burggren, W.W. (2019). Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) life development: morphological, physioogical, behavioral, and molecular phenotypes. Developmental Dynamics, 248, 337-350. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.27.

Schlenker, L.S., Welch, M.J., Mager, E.M., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Muday, P.L., Grosell, M. (2019). Exposure to Crude Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impairs Oil Avoidance Behavior without Affecting Olfatory Physiology in Juvenile Mahi-Mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Environmental Science and Technology, 53, 14001 – 14009. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b05240.

Schlenker, L.S., Welch, M.J., Meredith, T.L., Mager, E.M., Lari, E., Babcock, E.A., Pyle, G.G., Munday, P.L., Grosell, M. (2019). Damsels in Distress: Oil Exposure Modifies Behavior and Olfaction in Bicolor Damselfish (Stegastes partitus). Environmental Science and Technology, 53, 10993 – 11001. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b03915.

Wang, Y., Pasparakis, C., Mager, E., Stieglitz, J., Benetti, D., & Grosell, M. (2019). Ontogeny of urea and ammonia transporters in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 229, 18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2018.11.018.

Wang, Y., Pasparakis, C., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M. (2019). The effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on ammonia and urea handling in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages. Aquatic Toxicology, 216, 105294. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105294.

Xu, E.G., Khursigara, A.J., Li, S., Esbaugh, A.J., Dasgupta, S., Volz, D.C., et al. (2019). mRNA-miRNA-Seq Reveals Neuro – Cardio Mechanisms of Crude Oil Toxicity in Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Environmental Science & Technology, 53(6), 3296-3305. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b00150.


Khursigara, A.J., Johansen, J.L., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2018). Social competition in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is influenced by crude oil exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 203, 194-201. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.08.011

Kloeblen, S., Stieglitz, J.D., Suarez, J., Grosell, M., & Benetti, D. (2018). Characterizing egg quality and larval performance from captive mahi – mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) over time. Aquaculture Research, 49(1), 282-293. doi: 10.1111/are.13459

Mager, E.M., Pasparakis, C.P., Stieglitz, J.D., Hoenig, R., Morris, J.M., Benetti, D.D. & Grosell, M. (2018). Combined effects of hypoxia or elevated temperature and Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure on juvenile mahi – mahi swimming performance. Mar.Env.Res. 139: 129 – 135. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.05.009.

Magnuson, J.T., Khursigara, A.J., Allmon, E.B., Esbaugh, A.J., & Roberts, A.P. (2018). Effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on ocular development in two estuarine fish species, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 166, 186-191. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.087

Pan, Y.K., Khursigara, A.J., Johansen, J.L., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2018). The effects of oil induced respiratory impairment on two indices of hypoxia tolerance in Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulates). Chemosphere, 200, 143 – 150. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.028.

Perrichon, P., Mager, E.M., Pasparakis, C., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M., et al. (2018). Combined effects of elevated temperature and Deepwater Horizon oil exposure on the cardiac performance of larval mahi – mahi, Coryphaena hippurusPloS One. 13(10), e0203949. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203949. 

Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., & Grosell, M. (2018). Nutritional Physiology of Mahi – mahi (Coryphaena hippurus): Postprandial metabolic response to different diets and metabolic impacts on swim performance. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular& Integrative Physiology, 215, 28 – 34. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.10.016.

Sweet, L.E., Revill, A.T., Strzelecki, J., Hook, S.E., Morris, J.M., & Roberts, A.P. (2018). Photo-induced toxicity following exposure to crude oil and ultraviolet radiation in 2 Australian fishes: Phototoxicity of Australian crude oil to fish. Environ Toxicol Chem, 37(5), 1359-1366. doi: 10.1002/etc.4083.

Xu, E.; Magnuson, J., Diamante, G., Mager, E., Pasparakis, C., Grosell, M., Roberts, A., Schlenk, D. (2018) Changes in microRNA-mRNA Signatures Agree with Morphological, Physiological, and Behavioral Changes in Larval Mahi-Mahi Treated with Deepwater Horizon Oil. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(22), 13501-13510. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b04169.


Cox, G.K., Crossley II, D.A., Stieglitz, J.D., Heuer, R.M., Benetti, D.D., & Grosell, M. (2017). Oil exposure impairs in situ cardiac function in response to ? – adrenergic stimulation in Cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Environmental Science and Technology, 51(24), 14390 – 14396. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b03820

Diamante, G., do Amaral E Silva Müller, G., Menjivar-Cervantes, N., Xu, E.G., Volz, D.C., Dias Bainy, A.C., et al. (2017). Developmental toxicity of hydroxylated chrysene metabolites in zebrafish embryos. Aquatic Toxicology, 189, 77-86. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.05.013

Diamante, G., Leung, Schlenk, D. (2017). Evaluation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) to 17?-estradiol-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology, 186: 180-187. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.02.024.

Diamante, G., Menjivar-Cervantes, N., Leung, M. S., Volz, D. C., & Schlenk, D. (2017). Contribution of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) to 17?-estradiol-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology, 186, 180-187. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.02.024

Diamante, G., Xu, E.G., Chan, S., Mager, E., Grosell, M. & Schlenk, D. (2017). Differential expression of microRNAs in embryos and larvae of mahi – mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil. Environmental Science and Technology Letters, 4(12), 523 – 529. doi:  10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00484

Johansen, J.L., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2017) Sustained impairment of respiratory function and swim performance following acute oil exposure in a coastal marine fish. Aquatic Toxicology, 187, 82-89. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.04.002

Johansen, J.L., Allan, B.J.M., Rummer, J.L., & Esbaugh, A.J. (2017) Oil exposure disrupts early life-history stages of coral reef fishes via behavioural impairments. Nature Ecology Evolution, 1(8), 1146–1152. doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0232-5.

Khursigara, A.J., Perrichon, P., Martinez Bautista, N., Burggren, W.W. & Esbaugh, A.J. (2017). Cardiac function and survival are affected by crude oil in larval red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Science of the Total Environment, 579, 797-804. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.026.

Nelson, D., Stieglitz, J.D., Cox, G.K., Heuer, R.M., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M., et al. (2017). Cardio – respiratory function during exercise in the cobia, Rachycentron canadum: The impact of crude oil exposure. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 201, 58 – 65. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2017.08.006.

Pasparakis, C., Sweet, L.E., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D., Casente, C.T., Roberts, A.P., et al. (2017). Combined Effects of Oil Exposure, Temperature, and Ultraviolet Radiation on Buoyancy and Oxygen Consumption of Embryonic Mahi – mahi, Coryphaena hippurusAquatic Toxicology, 191, 113 – 121. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.07.021

Perrichon, P., Grosell, M., & Burggren, W.W. (2017). Heart Performance determination by visualization in larval fishes: influence of alternative models for heart shape and volume. Frontiers in Physiology–Aquatic Physiology, 8, 464. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00464.

Perrichon, P., Pasparakis, C., Mager, E.M., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D.D., Grosell, M., et al. (2017). Morphology and cardiac physiology are differentially affected by temperature in developing larvae of the marine fish mahi – mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Biology Open, 6(6), 800-809. doi: 10.1242/bio.025692

Stieglitz, J. D., Hoenig, R.H., Kloeblen, S., Tudela, C.E., Grosell, M., & Benetti, D.D. (2017). Capture, transport, prophylaxis, acclimation, and continuous spawning of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) in captivity. Aquaculture, 479, 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.05.006.

Sweet, L.E., Magnuson, J., Garner, T.R., Alloy, M.M., Stieglitz, J.D., Benetti, D., et al. (2017). Exposure to ultraviolet radiation late in development increases the toxicity of oil to mahi-mahi (Corypahena hippurus) embryos: Developmental timing of photo-induced toxicity to mahi – mahi. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36(6), 1592 – 1598. doi: 10.1002/etc.3687.

Xu, E.G., Khursigara, A.J., Magnuson, J., Hazard, E.S., Hardiman, G., Esbaugh, A.J., et al. (2017). Larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) sublethal exposure to weathered Deepwater Horizon crude oil: Developmental and Transcriptomic Consequences. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(17), 10162 – 10172. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02037.

Xu, G.E., Mager, E. M., Grosell, M., Hazard, E. S., Hardiman, G., & Schlenk, D. (2017) Novel transcriptome assembly and comparative toxicity pathway analysis in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos and larvae exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil. Sci. Rep., 7, 44546. doi: 10.1038/srep44546.

Xu, E.G., Mager, E.M., Grosell, M., Stieglitz, J.D., Hazard, E.S., Hardiman, G., et al. (2017). Developmental transcriptomic analyses for mechanistic insights into critical pathways involved in embryogenesis of pelagic mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). PLoS ONE, 12(7): e0180454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180454.


Buskey, E., White, H., & Esbaugh, A. (2016). Impact of Oil Spills on Marine Life in the Gulf of Mexico: Effects on Plankton, Nekton, and Deep-Sea Benthos. Oceanography, 29(3), 174–181. doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2016.81

Joye, S. B., Bracco, A., Özgökmen, T. M., Chanton, J. P., Grosell, M., MacDonald, I. R., et al. (2016). The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem, six years after the Macondo oil well blowout. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 129, 4–19. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.04.018

Nelson, D., Heuer, R. M., Cox, G. K., Stieglitz, J. D., Hoenig, R., Mager, E. M., et al. (2016). Effects of crude oil on in situ cardiac function in young adult mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Aquatic Toxicology, 180, 274–281. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.10.012

Oziolor, E.M., Dubansky, B., Burggren, W.W., & Matson, C.W. (2016)  Cross-resistance in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations resistant to dioxin-like compounds. Aquatic Toxicology, 175, 222-231. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.03.019

Pasparakis, C., Mager, E. M., Stieglitz, J. D., Benetti, D., & Grosell, M. (2016). Effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure, temperature and developmental stage on oxygen consumption of embryonic and larval mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Aquatic Toxicology, 181, 113–123. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.10.022

Xu, E.G., Mager, E.M., Grosell, M., Pasparakis, C., Schlenker, L.S., Stieglitz, J.D., et al. (2016). Time- and oil-dependent transcriptomic and physiological responses to Deepwater Horizon oil in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos and larvae. Environ. Sci. Technol., 129, 4-19. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02205


Burggren, W., Dubansky, B., Roberts, A., & Alloy, M. (2015). Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill as a Case Study for Interdisciplinary Cooperation within Developmental Biology, Environmental Sciences and Physiology. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(4C), 7–23. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2015.34C002